A Historic Landing at the Lunar South Pole
Chandrayaan-3: India’s Triumph in Lunar Exploration
Explore Chandrayaan-3, ISRO’s historic lunar mission that successfully touched
down near the lunar south pole, unveiling lunar secrets and showcasing global collaboration in space
exploration. Learn about its objectives, significance, and budget-conscious approach.
Humanity’s unrelenting quest for knowledge and exploration finds no limitations in the vastness of
our universe. This unwavering spirit is best exemplified by the Chandrayaan program, a line of lunar
exploration missions created by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The third mission in
this ambitious program, Chandrayaan-3, represents an important turning point in India’s ascent
through space. Launched on July 14, 2023, Chandrayaan-3 follows in the footsteps of its
predecessors, particularly Chandrayaan-2, which embarked on its lunar mission in 2019. This mission
comprises a lunar lander named Vikram and a lunar rover named Pragyan, echoing the names of
their predecessors. These resilient spacecrafts are at the forefront of India’s quest for lunar
Touchdown at the Lunar South Pole
A defining moment in Chandrayaan-3’s mission unfolded on August 23, 2023, at 12:33 UTC. In a
remarkable feat of engineering and precision, the lander Vikram gently touched down near the lunar
south polar region. This achievement not only made India’s Triumph the fourth country in the world to
successfully land on the Moon but also marked a historic first—it was the first successful lunar
landing near the lunar south pole.
Unlocking Lunar Secrets
The lunar south pole has captivated scientists and space enthusiasts due to its unique
characteristics. Extensive studies have revealed the presence of significant amounts of ice in this
region, hidden amidst the challenging lunar terrain. What makes this ice discovery even more
intriguing is the harsh lunar environment, where temperature extremes and rugged landscapes
present unique challenges. These conditions protect the ice from melting, making the task of landing
scientific probes incredibly demanding.
Ice: A Window to Lunar History and Resources
The significance of this ice lies in its potential to contain solid-state compounds that would typically
melt under lunar conditions. These compounds hold the key to unlocking the history of not just the
Moon but also Earth and the broader Solar System. Furthermore, for future crewed missions and
lunar outposts, this ice could serve as a vital resource—providing drinking water, hydrogen for fuel,
Global Collaboration for Success
The success of Chandrayaan-3 was not India’s achievement alone. That’s the International collaboration played
a pivotal role in ensuring the mission’s success. The European Space Tracking Network (ESTRACK),
operated by the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Deep Space Network, managed by NASA’s
Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), lent their support to this historic mission. This collaborative effort
represents a new cross-support arrangement, where ESA provided tracking support for upcoming
ISRO missions like India’s first human spaceflight program, Gaganyaan, and the Aditya-L1 solar
research mission. In return, ISRO has committed to offering similar support to ESA’s future missions.
This spirit of cooperation emphasizes the global nature of space exploration.
Chandrayaan-3 is a mission with multifaceted objectives. Firstly, it aimed to engineer and implement
a lander capable of safely and softly touching down on the lunar surface—a critical element in
preserving delicate instruments and payloads. Secondly, the mission sought to observe and
demonstrate the rover’s driving capabilities on the Moon, which involves navigating the challenging
lunar terrain. Lastly, Chandrayaan-3 aimed to conduct experiments on the lunar surface materials to
gain a deeper understanding of the Moon’s composition, adding valuable data to humanity’s
growing lunar knowledge bank.
The financial aspect of Chandrayaan-3 is also noteworthy. ISRO requested an initial funding of ₹75
crore (approximately US$9.4 million) for the project. Out of this, ₹60 crore (around US$7.5 million)
was allocated for machinery, equipment, and other capital expenses, while the remaining ₹15 crore
(about US$1.9 million) was earmarked for operating expenditure. This financial prudence is achieved
through local sourcing of equipment and design elements, significantly reducing the project’s cost.
Former ISRO chairman K. Sivan estimated the total cost of Chandrayaan-3 to be around ₹615 crore
(equivalent to ₹721 crore or US$90 million in 2023). This budget-conscious approach exemplifies
ISRO’s commitment to maximizing value for every rupee invested in its space exploration
Chandrayaan-3 stands as a testament to India’s Triumph ability in space exploration and its unwavering
commitment to pushing the boundaries of human knowledge. With its successful landing near the
lunar south pole, this mission has unlocked the door to a treasure trove of lunar mysteries and
potential resources. Moreover, Chandrayaan-3’s collaborative approach with international partners
demonstrates the global spirit of cooperation that is vital for the future of space exploration. As we
celebrate this remarkable achievement, we eagerly anticipate the invaluable scientific discoveries
and technological advancements that Chandrayaan-3 will undoubtedly bring to our world.